In the ninth and tenth century a resurgent Byzantine Empire regained its lost territories, including even long lost territory such as and ancient.
McMahon, Gregory; Steadman, Sharon eds.
Western and southern Anatolia, which have a , contain ecoregions.
The Royal Roads of Anatolia.
The eastern border of Anatolia has been held to be a line between the and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highlands to the east and to the southeast.
They include the enclaves of lying along the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in eastern Turkey and Georgia.
Control of Anatolia was then split between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk , with the Byzantine holdings gradually being reduced.
A central composed of uplifted blocks and downfolded , covered by recent and giving the appearance of a plateau with rough terrain, is wedged between two folded mountain ranges that converge in the east.