Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.
Isma'il also sought to modernize the city, which was merging with neighbouring settlements, by establishing a ministry, bringing and lighting to the city, and opening a theatre and opera house.
While its elegant curved walls showcase its distinct architecture, the same walls also provided a strong defence against enemies during old times.
The composition in the manuscript predates the illustrations found at Hermopolis, suggesting that they may have had a long history of transmission before being used in the coffin decorations.
The Association ran the festival for seven years until 1983.
Though the plagues returned frequently throughout the 15th century, Cairo remained a major metropolis and its population recovered in part through.
But workers won their strikes, at least on paper, and have felt more confident.
Its economy and politics also became more deeply connected with the wider Mediterranean.